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Cadillac CTS Euro

The boldly styled CTS model represents a true luxury sports sedan with a European driving feel, a car representing the global brand that Cadillac has become. A clear sign of that commitment was General Motors' engineering and development team testing the CTS's rigid, durable chassis and sophisticated suspension system on the most challenging race circuit in the world, Germany's famed Nürburgring.

Styled in a modern interpretation of the cars that made Cadillac famous, the Cadillac CTS is offered with the choice of two smooth-running six-cylinder engines. The new 2.8-liter CTS sedan develops 158 kW (215 horsepower) and is complemented by an all new 3.6 liter V6 with 189 kW (257 hp), linked to a six-speed manual transmission or five-speed automatic. The CTS is every inch a true Cadillac; a fusion of design and technology - what other car could be the star of the Hollywood blockbuster movie Matrix Reloaded?

Overview

The CTS builds on Cadillac's century-long tradition of technology and design innovation, and is a modern interpretation of the cars that made Cadillac famous. Characteristic cues include vertical headlamps and tail lamps, a refinement of a Cadillac tradition that first appeared in 1965. The integrated headlamps convey the high-tech image of optical instruments and high-end camera lenses.

Thin and tall, they create space for the large, louvered grille that tapers into the classic Cadillac grille with the prominent wreath and crest logo and a dramatic, rising shoulder line that refracts the light. It splits the car into a light upper and dark lower section, adding to the perceived length of the vehicle. The body's stature is accentuated by strong wheel arches, defined by a precise undercut in the metal - a feature that makes the standard 16-inch or optional 17-inch aluminium wheels seem even larger.

The two modern V6 engines boast high levels of performance and refinement. Mounted longitudinally in an especially compact arrangement, common features include aluminium cylinder heads, four valves per cylinder, four overhead cams and electronically controlled "drive-by-wire" throttle, assuring sensitive engine response to driver input.

The 2.8L V-6 VVT is the second-produced variant of GM's new global V-6 engine family, an all-aluminium 60-degree dual overhead cam, four-valve-per-cylinder design, developing 158 kW (215 hp) at 7000 rpm and 262 Nm of torque at 3300 rpm. The engine employs a wide range of advanced technologies, including fully variable valve timing of the intake and exhaust valves and a dual-stage variable intake manifold to deliver outstanding flexibility, fuel economy and emissions control.

The 3.6L V-6 VVT is an all-aluminium, 60-degree dual overhead cam, four-valves-per-cylinder design, with fully variable valve timing and a dual-stage variable intake manifold, developing 189 kW (257 hp) at 6200 rpm and 340 Nm of torque at 3200 rpm. Externally it is distinguished from its smaller stablemate by the use of dual, rather than a single exhaust.

The CTS' Sigma architecture is the first usage of ultra high-strength steel at GM and the first time the steel has been incorporated as a welded member of the structure. In the past, ultra high-strength steel was limited to applications such as bumpers, where bolts were used for attachment. Ultra high-strength steel permits the use of thinner, lighter steel, which reduces mass yet still allows proper energy absorption and reduces intrusion into the passenger compartment in an accident.

The distinctive form vocabulary of the Cadillac CTS is also reflected in the interior design, with a new instrument cluster which includes strikingly designed dials reminiscent of stop watches and a three-spoke steering wheel with V-shaped airbag cover. The center console features displays for the sound system, climate control and the optional navigation unit, all ergonomically arranged within the driver's view. A range of leather interiors are available, including a particularly elegant two-tone version featuring contrasting colors for the well designed and comfortable seats. A cloth interior is standard on Comfort and Elegance.

The Cadillac CTS is distinguished by generous interior space for a performance sedan, comfortably accommodating five people. The cabin measures a generous 1075 by 940 mm, while front shoulder room is also exemplary at 1438 mm. The trunk has a VDA cargo rating of 420 liters while fold-down 60/40-split rear seats means the cargo capacity can be further increased with ease.

Standard equipment

Standard equipment includes six next-generation airbags. The two dual-stage front airbags inflate according to crash severity to avoid unnecessary injuries during minor collisions. Side-on impacts trigger front-seat-mounted side bags and roof-mounted curtain bags which inflate between the A- and C-pillars to ensure that all outboard occupants are protected. Because they inflate over a large area, the air cushions also protect the heads of smaller passengers.

A European way of driving with sporty, agile handling, was the guiding principle for the CTS designers, who created a sophisticated rear-wheel-drive chassis with near-perfectly balanced weight distribution - 53 % front, 47 % rear.

The front suspension features a double A-arm design with coil springs. The rear wheels are mounted on a five-link rear axle, isolated from the body by four rubber mounts. The front upper and lower control arms are made of aluminium, which is also used on the rear axle for the upper control arm and the suspension knuckles. Specially designed for European requirements, the suspension guarantees good ride comfort, even on poor-quality surfaces and with the car fully loaded.

All CTS models are factory-fitted with the Nivomat self-leveling rear suspension system from the German company Sachs Automotive. The StabiliTrak stability control system is fitted as standard. It increases driving safety in high speed swerves or sudden avoidance manoeuvres, restabilizing the car through precise application of the brakes on individual wheels and if necessary retards the engine timing. Adapted from the driving dynamics system in the Corvette, the system is highly responsive and can adjust braking at any of the four wheels to maintain vehicle control.

The Cadillac CTS is built at the General Motors Lansing Grand River (LGR) assembly plant in Lansing, Michigan, alongside the CTS-V, all-new SRX luxury utility vehicle and STS luxury sedan. The plant is one of the most advanced, state-of-the-art assembly plants in the world. It was awarded the prestigious prestigious Gold Plant Award as a leader in initial vehicle quality among luxury nameplates, following the 2004 J.D. Power and Associates Initial Quality Study.

Trend-setting design sets CTS apart from the luxury crowd

The 2003 Cadillac CTS sedan was the first production car to fully embody the division's Art and Science design philosophy, first introduced on the 1999 Evoq concept roadster. The dramatic exterior form of the new sedan immediately states the arrival of Art and Science on the road. The boldly chiseled CTS, with its sheer forms, sharp edges and crisp intersecting lines, at once honors Cadillac's history and points toward its bright future.

"Cadillac at its peak was known for bold, trend-setting design and innovative, ground-breaking technology-it was indeed the standard of the world," said Wayne K. Cherry, General Motors vice president of Design. "At its best, its styling was overt and dramatic. CTS is certainly dramatic, yet also refined. It builds on this heritage in a bold, new way."

Cadillac's Art and Science design form vocabulary borrows the sharp forms, angular shapes and crisp edges of stealth aircraft technology, among other American, high-tech geometric influences. The risk-taking design that results is marked by a taut, lean body that's long from dash to axle, with short overhangs.

The CTS exterior design team, led by Thomas Kearns, had two objectives for the profile view: Use the feature line as the dominant theme with an emphasis on vertical ends, and accentuate the stance of the vehicle. The rear track of CTS is a fixed design point, as is the fender flare. The vehicle sides were tucked in slightly to enhance that flare for a more tapered look. The sail panel also enhances the fast, formal look, giving CTS a sportier appearance. Simple but dramatic, the hood kicks up into the fender line for a sweeping, dynamic look. An example of the efforts of CTS designers to formulate technical precision in details is the beltline; it extends through to the distinctive rear as well as to the front in a subtle fender line.

Traditional design cues, including the grille and exterior lighting have been brought right up to date on the CTS. Cadillac's keynote vertical headlights and taillights first appeared in 1965. CTS carries on and refines the tradition with integrated headlights that convey the high-tech image of optical instruments and high-end camera lenses.

Thin and tall, they create space for the large, louvered egg-crate grille — another Cadillac staple, this one dating back to the 1930s. The shield-shaped grille prominently houses the new Cadillac wreath and crest emblem. A tungsten halogen headlamp system is standard on the CTS, with a high-intensity discharge (HID) system as an option, standard on up-level models. In response to customers who disliked the intense blue light from some HID headlights, the light from the HID lamps of the CTS has been toned down, with illumination that is more white than blue.

Both halogen and HID forward lamps incorporate automatic dynamic headlamp leveling systems to keep the light beams focused on the road under all conditions. This key CTS safety feature provides better vision for the driver and reduces glare for oncoming traffic. Rear fog lamps, position lamps, tail lamps, headlamp optics and side repeater lamps are all unique to meet specific European legal requirements.

The rear view complements the front, with a full-color wreath and crest integrated into the center line and a wide V-shaped center high-mounted stop light (CHMSL). The center high-mounted stop light of the CTS is illuminated by neon, providing long bulb life, a smooth light pattern and almost-instant illumination enabling quicker response time for braking for drivers in vehicles travelling behind the CTS.

 

Cool, comfort and convenience in an inviting interior

The Art and Science design philosophy evident in the exterior of the Cadillac CTS continues throughout to the interior of the vehicle. The interior provides all the amenities that luxury customers have come to expect, with the emphasis on comfort and convenience. It uses warm, rich materials to contrast with the cool, computer-like, high-tech cockpit appearance, balancing the contemporary feel with touches of traditional luxury. Wooden surfaces are used sparingly, only in areas with which the customer comes in contact, such as on the shifter knob, top of the steering wheel and door pulls.

American computer influence inspires the form vocabulary and content of the inviting interior of the new Cadillac CTS, particularly in the instrument panel and door treatments. The center stack especially borrows from the look of a personal computer, and climate control air vents are reminiscent of computer vents. Strong vertical elements throughout the interior reinforce the vertical design themes established on the exterior.

The CTS steering wheel is a sporty three-spoke design, with the center of the wheel sporting the Cadillac shield shape and wearing the wreath and crest. The wheel also features a diamond cut center spline and a distinctive "mouse button" to control the audio system volume and source.

Intuitive controls

The screen for the driver information / audio system is positioned high on the center stack, well within the line of sight for both driver and passengers. The controls are intuitive, with two large knobs for volume and tuning, six presets, and seek and scan buttons. The steering wheel-mounted mouse allows the driver to adjust the audio system volume and source. The system includes an AM/FM/Radio Data System tuner, single-slot CD player, onboard service diagnostics, a driver information center and other personalization features. A 6-disc in-dash CD changer and CD-Rom navigation are optional.

The standard audio system is a seven-speaker Delphi-Delco system capable of generating 200 Watts of power, while the uplevel Bose unit is an eight-speaker, 212-Watt system. An AM/FM Diversity antenna module is integrated with the Keyless Entry Module, improving key fob reception.

The Denso integrated Heating Venting and Cooling (HVAC) system is another world-class feature in CTS. As a result of the highair conditioning performance, there is no need for rear A/C outlets. Floor ducting is located under the seats.

Lighting was given much consideration in the design phase, both in form and in function. Interior lights are recessed to reduce glare, and reading lights are tightly focused to give the user a sense of privacy rather than being under the spotlight. Courtesy lighting evenly distributes illumination throughout the cabin.

Safety and security received special emphasis from the outset of CTS development. Interior safety features include the LATCH (Lower Anchors and Top Tether for Children) child safety seat installation system at both rear outboard positions, and top tethers at all rear seat positions.

The front seats have integrated seatbelts that feature both energy management retractors as well as pretensioners. The energy management retractors work to limit the force exerted by the seatbelts on the passengers during impact. By slightly feeding out the seatbelt just after the event, the retractors work to keep ribs from bruising. The use of energy management retractors in the CTS is a GM first.

The pretensioners work in tandem with the energy management retractors for maximum effectiveness of the seatbelts. The pretensioners are able to take up slack in the seatbelts as soon as an impact event is detected. Keeping the occupants secure and limiting their movement is one way to potentially reduce the severity of an event.

The rear seatbelts are all three-point belts and are integrated into the rear seat. With the split-folding rear seat, the center seatbelt mounts in the rear deck and has a detachable latch that allows it to stow so that the seat back can be folded. The rear doors have child security door locks. All side doors are equipped with new side impact beams constructed of carbon ruled steel, an industry first.

Six next-generation air bags are standard on CTS, including two dual-stage front airbags, two front-seat-mounted side thorax bags and two roof-mounted side curtain bags that run from A-pillar to C-pillar to protect all of the vehicle's occupants in the event of a side-impact crash.

The rail curtain airbags mount at the top of the B-pillar and run the full length of the cabin. A tether mounts them at their respective A- and C-pillars and protects both front and rear passengers in the event of a side-impact event. The rail air bags are designed to extend far enough down to provide head protection for 5th percentile occupants.

On the interior of the vehicle, differences include standard fabric seating surfaces with optional leather, optional front heated seats (cloth or leather), three head restraints on the rear seat, and a standard split folding rear seat back. Navigation and driver information systems support multiple languages for voice and text, and the navigation system also provides TV reception and auxiliary video inputs.

Sigma Architecture: Designs on Safety

In addition to being a versatile, sturdy architecture that can spawn many different future products, GM's new Sigma vehicle architecture was designed and engineered with safety top of mind. CTS was designed and outfitted accordingly.

To enhance high-speed offset crash worthiness and occupant protection, octagonal motor rails were used for the front zones of CTS. An octagonal shape is the most efficient shape for energy absorption for a given mass. While the octagonal shape has been used in other production vehicles, CTS takes the design further by stamping the front zones and the rails from ultra high-strength steel. Ultra high-strength steel permits the use of thinner, lighter steel, which reduces mass yet still allows proper energy absorption and reduces intrusion into the passenger compartment.

The motor rails then tie into long rails that travel from just behind the front wheels, beneath the dash panel, and under the feet of the front-seat passengers. Also stamped from ultra high-strength steel, they are nicknamed "ski rails" by the structural engineers because of their length and shape. To protect and maintain their geometry during a crash event, the ski rails are injected with structural foam. The foam also prevents intrusion around the occupants' feet, another concern in high-speed offset crashes.

The Sigma architecture is the first usage of ultra high-strength steel in General Motors, and the first time it has been incorporated as a welded member of the structure. In the past, usage of ultra high-strength steel was limited to applications such as bumpers, where bolts were used for attachment. Even stronger ultra high-strength steel was used on the inner rocker panels of CTS, to prevent the rocker from intruding into the passenger compartment in a crash.

Powertrains and chassis for a world-class sports sedan

Designed from the ground up with a choice of smooth powerful V6 engines and an exclusive rear-wheel-drive architecture, the new CTS equipped with a manual transmission can accelerate from 0-100 km/h in less than seven seconds and has excellent road-handling capabilities. Also, like any true sports sedan, the CTS has something no rear-wheel-drive Cadillac has had before; a six-speed manual transmission. This perfectly complements the CTS' luxury and bold, striking design with exhilarating, outstanding performance.

The two modern V6 engines boast high levels of performance and refinement. Mounted longitudinally in an especially compact arrangement, common features include aluminium cylinder heads, four valves per cylinder, four overhead cams and electronically controlled "drive-by-wire" throttle, assuring sensitive engine response to driver input.

The second-produced variant of GM's new global V-6 engine family, the new 2.8L V-6 VVT is an all-aluminium 60-degree dual overhead cam, four-valve-per-cylinder design, developing 215 hp (158 kW) at 7000 rpm and 262 Nm of torque at 3300 rpm. The engine employs a wide range of advanced technologies, including fully variable valve timing of the intake and exhaust valves and a dual-stage variable intake manifold to deliver outstanding flexibility, fuel economy and emissions control.

The 3.6L V-6 VVT is an all-aluminium, 60-degree dual overhead cam, four-valves-per-cylinder design, with fully variable valve timing and a dual-stage variable intake manifold, developing 257 horsepower (189 kW) at 6200 rpm and 340 Nm of torque at 3200 rpm. Externally it is distinguished from its smaller stablemate by the use of dual, rather than a single exhaust.

Aisin six-speed manual transmission

New for 2005, the CTS will be offered with an Aisin six-speed manual transmission. Eagerly anticipated by performance enthusiasts, Both models are available with the six-speed manual or the Hydra-Matic 5L40-E automatic transmission.

The six-speed transmission is fully synchronized (including reverse), with a single overdrive. This allows for lower propshaft speeds and improved NVH. The transmission is rated for 400 Nm (295 horsepower) and its unique architecture is such that the gear inertias are lower, resulting in significantly lower shift efforts compared to conventional RWD manual transmissions. Customers not selecting the manual will receive a GM first: a five-speed electronically controlled automatic transmission, the 5L40-E Hydra-Matic, also used in the BMW 5 Series and X5 SUV.

A compact state-of-the-art transmission, the light 5L40-E features a full complement of advanced electronic control capabilities. These include shift mode buttons that allow the driver to select between "Sport," "Winter" and "Economy" modes, shift patterns that adapt to driving conditions and driver style, traction control capability, engine torque management during shifts, and powertrain protection capabilities.

Engine braking in all five gears

Another electronic feature is a first for GM: engine braking in all five gears, gives the automatic the same sporty feel as downshifting a manual. The system uses vehicle sensors and seamlessly shifts the automatic transmission to a lower gear to maintain desired speed and minimize brake overheating when driving downhill. This is especially useful in protecting the brakes when towing a trailer, which is commonplace in Europe.

The 5L40-E uses an electronically controlled capacity clutch in the torque converter, instead of a mechanical lock-up clutch. This clutch uses sophisticated electronics to maintain very small amounts of slip between the pressure plate and the torque converter housing cover, and to maintain a slight hydraulic cushion between the two halves of the torque converter. The ability to precisely control continuously variable amounts of slip leads to reduced torque pulses and allows the clutch to be applied at lower vehicle speeds and with smoother engagement. This results in improved drivability and better fuel economy.

The electronics that control the "Sport Shift" adaptive mode are highly advanced. Sport shift algorithms analyze throttle inputs, cornering factors (wheel speed differences from left to right) and vehicle speed. Based on these parameters, the 5L40-E is able to identify high-performance inputs from the driver and hold a gear after the driver's foot is lifted off the accelerator pedal.

A European way of driving with sporty, agile handling, was the guiding principle for the CTS designers, who created a sophisticated rear-wheel-drive chassis with near-perfectly balanced weight distribution - 53 % front, 47 % rear.

The front suspension features a double A-arm design with coil springs. The rear wheels are mounted on a five-link rear axle, isolated from the body by four rubber mounts. The front upper and lower control arms are made of aluminium, which is also used on the rear axle for the upper control arm and the suspension knuckles. Specially designed for European requirements, the suspension guarantees good ride comfort, even on poor-quality surfaces and with the car fully loaded.

All CTS models destined for Europe are factory-fitted with the Nivomat self-leveling rear suspension system from the German company Sachs Automotive. Traction control is also standard. If its sensors detect insufficient traction, the system immediately applies the brakes to the relevant wheels and, if necessary, also retards the engine timing.

The standard available StabiliTrak stability control system increases driving safety in high speed swerves or sudden avoidance manoeuvres, restabilizing the car through precise application of the brakes on individual wheels. Adapted from the driving dynamics system in the Corvette, the system is highly responsive and can adjust braking at any of the four wheels to maintain vehicle control.

The Matrix Reloaded starring CTS: a blockbuster star of the silver screen

The Cadillac CTS is familiar to many as the star of a spectacular car chase in Warner Bros' The Matrix Reloaded, a true Hollywood blockbuster. The film is the second installment of a trilogy that began with The Matrix, the 1999 release that revolutionized the science-fiction/action film genre with groundbreaking special effects and innovative storytelling. The Matrix also was the first DVD to sell a million units and has since become the top-selling DVD of all time.

"Cadillac has a long, rich history of interaction with American pop culture in film, television and music, and this role in The Matrix Reloaded, for us, is another tangible symbol of Cadillac's product renaissance," said Mark LaNeve, Cadillac general manager at the time. "Even though Cadillac has appeared in more than 100 films over the past 100 years, this marked the first time Cadillac strategically invested and leveraged its products in a major film."

"We selected Cadillac to play a major role in The Matrix Reloaded because we knew the CTS could handle our rigorous production demands, as well as fit seamlessly into the innovative, hyper-stylized world of the Matrix," said Joel Silver, producer of The Matrix trilogy.

The Cadillac CTS appeared in The Matrix Reloaded in one of the most elaborate chase sequences ever filmed. After spending months searching for the perfect highway location, filmmakers were unable to find an existing freeway that met the necessary production requirements, so they built their own mile-and-a-half-long freeway - complete with a 19-foot high wall and two overpasses - on a runway at the Alameda Naval Base in California. Cadillac turned over more than 24 vehicles to the studios for the chase. The sequence runs approximately 15 minutes but offers little insight into how Cadillac created two-dozen vehicles that didn't yet exist. The story melds talent, hard work and impeccable timing, not least because when filming started, the CTS was still a year away from production!

The story began in late 2000, when GM learned Warner Bros. Pictures was seeking vehicles for The Matrix Reloaded. Cadillac's corporate marketing team instantly realized this was an ideal opportunity to show the car to young, affluent audiences, who are difficult to reach with conventional media and might not have considered a Cadillac in the past.

The CTS team pulled five vehicles from the prototype run and built them to exact specifications. They also secured half a dozen vehicles from older prototype models that, as part of the normal development process, were scheduled to be crushed. Some were whole vehicles, other mere shells, missing windows and interior parts such as seats or instruments panel, doors and trim.

The team emptied their engineering garage to secure spare CTS parts, pulling components out of recycling bins to be recovered and reconfigured. They spent the next 10 weeks or so reconfiguring the CTS to meet the filmmakers' specs. The hero vehicles needed to be in perfect condition for filming, but the others didn't need to be as pristine because only small portions would be filmed and the exteriors would be crashed almost immediately after filming began.

The end result was a stunning action sequence in a spectacular movie, as Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne and Carrie-Anne Moss, as freedom fighters Neo, Morpheus and Trinity, continued to lead the revolt against the Machine Army, unleashing their arsenal of extraordinary skills and weaponry against repression and exploitation in the last surviving city on Earth. Not surprisingly both the movie and the Cadillac CTS have become icons of the new Milllennium.

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